The paper deals with the history of Polish mathematical societies since 1917, when the Mathematical Society in Lvov was founded. In the second half of the 19th century there appeared first national mathematical societies in Russia, France, United Kindom, Italy, United States, Germany. In Poland, partitioned then by neighbour powers (Russia, Prussia, Austria) whose policy was to deny Polish national development - it was not possible. An attempt has been made abroad in the form of the Society of Exact Sciences in Paris (Polish society, with a dozen or so mathematicians as members), which acted 1870-1882. The situation has changed by the outbreak of World War I and the subsequent fall of all three partitioning powers. The Polish Mathematical Society was founded by its constituent assembly on April 2, 1919.