The paper presents a new technique for cognitive analysis and recognition of pathological wrist bone lesions. This method uses AI techniques and mathematical linguistics allowing us to automatically evaluate the structure of the said bones, based on palm radiological images. Possibilities of computer interpretation of selected images, based on the methodology of automatic medical image understanding, as introduced by the authors, were created owing to the introduction of an original relational description of individual palm bones. This description was built with the use of graph linguistic formalisms already applied in artificial intelligence. The research described in this paper demonstrates that for the needs of palm bone diagnostics, specialist linguistic tools such as expansive graph grammars and EDT-label graphs are particularly well suited. Defining a graph image language adjusted to the specific features of the scientific problem described here permitted a semantic description of correct palm bone structures. It also enabled the interpretation of images showing some in-born lesions, such as additional bones or acquired lesions such as their incorrect junctions resulting from injuries and synostoses.